This calculator is designed to determine the gravitational pull experienced at the surface of a planet or moon. This measurement is crucial for applications in astronomy, astrophysics, planetary science, and space travel. It affects how satellites are launched, how planets are studied, and can even influence the planning of future manned missions to other planets.

### Formula of Surface Gravity Calculator

The formula for calculating surface gravity is:

Here's a closer look at each term:

**g**: Surface gravity measured in meters per second squared (m/s²).**G**: The universal gravitational constant, approximately 6.67430 x 10^-11 m³ kg^-1 s^-2, crucial for all gravitational calculations.**M**: The mass of the celestial body, typically in kilograms.**R**: The radius of the celestial body, measured in meters from its center to its surface.

This formula is derive from Newton's law of universal gravitation, tailored to find the gravity at a body's surface by accounting for its size and mass.

### Table for General Terms

Here is a table with general terms and pre-calculated values for some well-known celestial bodies:

Celestial Body | Mass (kg) | Radius (m) | Surface Gravity (m/s²) |
---|---|---|---|

Mercury | 3.30 x 10^23 | 2,439,700 | 3.7 |

Venus | 4.87 x 10^24 | 6,051,800 | 8.87 |

Earth | 5.97 x 10^24 | 6,371,000 | 9.81 |

Moon | 7.35 x 10^22 | 1,737,400 | 1.62 |

Mars | 6.39 x 10^23 | 3,389,500 | 3.71 |

Jupiter | 1.90 x 10^27 | 69,911,000 | 24.79 |

Saturn | 5.68 x 10^26 | 58,232,000 | 10.44 |

Uranus | 8.68 x 10^25 | 25,362,000 | 8.69 |

Neptune | 1.02 x 10^26 | 24,622,000 | 11.15 |

### Example of Surface Gravity Calculator

To calculate Earth's surface gravity:

- Enter Earth’s mass (M = 5.97 x 10^24 kg).
- Enter Earth’s radius (R = 6,371,000 meters).
- Use the formula to find g = 9.81 m/s^2.

### Most Common FAQs

**What is surface gravity and why does it matter?**Surface gravity is the gravitational force experience at a celestial body's surface. It influences object weight and atmospheric retention.

**How accurate are surface gravity calculations?**Accuracy depends on the precision of the mass and radius values. The calculator provides accurate results for most educational and research purposes.

**Can the calculator be use for any celestial body?**Yes, if mass and radius are known, it can compute surface gravity for any planet or moon.